Does Cord Blood Suppress Development Of Breast Cancer?

Close-up of tubes with blood it's blood transfusion at the hospital

Among the most frequent kinds of cancer amongst women internationally is breast cancer. Once detected, there are three important factors which determine the course of treatment for breast cancer patients – diagnostic phase, receptor expression of steroids, and growth factors.


Normal therapy in this condition comprises a combination of mastectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, typically, severe side effects are noticed that has had considerable effect on the patient’s wellbeing. Multiple investigations conducted in the recent years have found that both rat and human umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) have the capacity to restrict the growth of breast carcinoma cells.

Whilst the true mechanism of this tumour suppression process by naïve umbilical cord stem cells are still not entirely clear, a number of cases have come forward through studies that have observed the immune systems of cancer bearing rats which requires the induction of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in tumour cells followed by an anti-tumour activation reaction.

Cancer cells

The mechanisms of communication with adjacent cancer cells through the procedure for sending and receiving chemical signals in all probability occurs because of cytokines and growth factors. These research have shown that umbilical cord stem cells could suppress tumour growth by greater than 90 percent in a 1:15 ratio, while human UCMSC suppressed the growth of human breast cancer cells by 50 percent.

The mechanism for these differences is unknown, but it indicates that varied cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by human and rat UCMSC. The current analysis revealed that the reversal of expression pattern in tumour suppressor genes in human and rat UCMSC when they were co-cultured with tumour cells. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether the results will be similar if one co-cultured human breast carcinoma cells using human umbilical cord stem cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Stem cells

Umbilical cord stem cells have a significant capacity to overcome tumour cells growth in indirect co-culture which seems that UCMSC-dependent tumour cells growth inhibition is partly as a result of secretory proteins. Subsequently, through an evaluation of gene expressions profiles in human and rat UCMSC co-cultured with breast cancer cells may present the character of the main actors for the variance in tumoricidal capacities in two kinds of UCMSC.

Besides, recognition of the very important processes in rat UCMSC dependent powerful tumoricidal activity will be used to reinforce human UCMSC-dependent tumoricidal action to the rat UCMSC level. In the current study, two tumor suppressor genes, ADRP and FST were found to be upregulated in rat UCMSC, whereas both of these genes were down regulated in human UCMSC when two kinds of UCMSC were co-cultured with corresponding species’ breast carcinoma cells. Therefore, both of these gene expression differences in two kinds of UCMSC may explain their differential tumoricidal activities.